AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the environment (Wikipedia)



Even Auckland has a problem with air pollution or smog
Even Auckland has a problem with air pollution or smog



There are many gases and particles that contribute to air pollution, some of these are listed below

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The majority of these primary pollutants are produced from combustion of fossil fuels like petrol and diesel in private transport and industrial machinery

1) Carbon dioxide is a product of most combustion reactions

2) Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion

3) Carbon (suspended particles) is a product of incomplete combustion

4) Sulfur oxides are produced from burning of fossil fuels

5) Nitrogen oxides are produced from burning of fossil fuels



This graph shows where the gases that cause air pollution come from

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EFFECTS TO HUMAN HEALTH


Carbon dioxide - is a toxic gas produced from combustion of fuels



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Carbon dioxide can become an issue in a closed space if the % of carbon dioxide is above 1%


The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is 0.04% but this has been shown to be increasing over the last hundred years



Carbon monoxide - is a very toxic gas


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Carbon monoxide (and carbon dioxide) levels can be increased by the following situations


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Sulfur dioxide (and trioxide) - are toxic gases that lead to asthma and adverse respiratory symptoms. Sulfur oxides are produced due to the small amount of sulfur present in the fossil fuels

==Sulfur is now removed from petrol and diesel so that it is less than 30ppm (parts per million) or 0.003%
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Nitrogen oxides - are produced in vehicle engines as air has 78% nitrogen and when combustion happens with enough pressure and temperature the following equations happen
==


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CATALYTIC CONVERTERS


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PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG

Photochemical smog is a unique type of air pollution caused by reactions of sunlight and nitrogen oxides

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For more information go here



ACID RAIN

Acid rain is a huge global problem

It happens when oxides like nitrogen, sulfur and carbon oxides dissolve in water vapour in the atmosphere making the water vapour more acidic, they then get precipitated (rained) down to earth


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EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN


Destroys plants and other wildlife
Destroys plants and other wildlife
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